Well tempered clavier book 1

 

    Internal evidence for this may be seen in the fact that in Book 1 Bach paired the E ♭ minor prelude (6 flats) with its enharmonic key of D♯. Anhang (Appendix) for Book 1, Nos. 1– .. Variants and annotations to Book 1 .. Das wohltemperierte Klavier I; The Well-Tempered Clavier 1; Le Clavier bien . Page 1. 3. Ped. simile. 6. 9. Prelude in C from The Well Tempered Clavier, Book One. Andante. J. S. Bach. More FREE music at: blusunihungan.tk~deben.

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    Well Tempered Clavier Book 1

    J.S. Bach, Well-Tempered Clavier, Book One, BWV blusunihungan.tke No. 1 in C major, BWV ; blusunihungan.tk No. 1 in C major, BWV ; blusunihungan.tke . The Well-Tempered Clavier Complete Books I and II and millions of other books are . Ludwig Van Beethoven Complete Piano Sonatas Volume 1 (Nos. ). Stream J.S. Bach: The Well-tempered Clavier, Book I by Ralph Kirkpatrick and tens of millions of other songs on all your devices with site Music Unlimited.

    We are listening to a collection that was studied by Mozart and Beethoven, and by virtually every composer since — to a collection that surely will have more to offer to composers yet to come. And we are listening to a performer who has spent his life here. We are listening to a compendium, or pair of compendia, whose origins go back to , when Bach notated pieces into a little book he was using in training his eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann, then a boy of ten. Two years later he reinscribed some items from that teaching material into a new volume of preludes and fugues in all the major and minor keys, and called it The Well-Tempered Clavier. His purposes were manifold — fugal, one might say. There was the matter addressed in the title, that of finding a temperament and we cannot be sure exactly what he had in mind in which it would be possible to play the entire contents without retuning the instrument. Conceivably he could also have been catering for a new instrument, since by this stage he had some familiarity with the piano — which, however, needs no such justification for its fitness here. Grandeur and intimacy are also here. Wit, too. Things in The Well-Tempered Clavier always come in pairs, but pairs that, unlike butterfly wings, display an essential asymmetry, if an asymmetry that will sound inevitable, even natural. Prelude and fugue are gate and path. The gate leads to the path, allows us to sense the path beyond it. Striding the path, we remember the gate that allowed us through.

    Wit, too. Things in The Well-Tempered Clavier always come in pairs, but pairs that, unlike butterfly wings, display an essential asymmetry, if an asymmetry that will sound inevitable, even natural. Prelude and fugue are gate and path. The gate leads to the path, allows us to sense the path beyond it.

    Striding the path, we remember the gate that allowed us through. Gate, because a prelude generally has a consistency of substance, a sameness, a repeating figure, a regular rhythm of chord change. Path, because in a fugue we follow the subject as it travels from one voice to another, from one tonality to another.

    Part of the wonder of The Well-Tempered Clavier is, of course, in the variety of gates and paths, the former showing astonishing diversity of character.

    In the first book only the E-flat-major and E-minor preludes are notably longer than their fugues, whereas in the second book more than half the preludes exceed their fugues in length. Wholesale repetition — in, for example, the G-sharp-minor prelude from the second book — provides an opportunity for the performer to try a subtly different approach.

    Other preludes are similarly in two sections, each repeated, a type introduced with the last prelude in the first book and reappearing ten times over in the second. The two-section forms also signal a greater nearness to dance in the later book — though by no means every such prelude is a dance, and there are dances, too, among the other, non-repeated preludes. The last Prelude and Fugue of the first group, No. The interpreter should feel free to decorate along the same lines.

    The beginning of the Fugue immediately announces something special. The subject contains just four notes that, when placed together on the staff, form the outline of a cross lying on its side.

    The first ten entries of the subject are not accompanied by any definable countersubject — solely a descending figure in crotchets that is also inverted. The mood is one of solemn introspection. After a cadence in the relative major E , Bach introduces the first of two countersubjects — this one in quavers, which begins to awaken us from our meditation. It drifts in, appearing first in the upper voice. Fourteen bars later the second countersubject announces itself, characterized by a supplicating repetition of the second note.

    From then on the whole Fugue is built around these three subjects, culminating in an intense dissonance over a pedal point, four bars from the end. Then the tension rapidly dissolves and Bach ends with a cadence in the major key called tierce de Picardie — with the pedal point still resonating.

    Surely the emotion expressed here is forgiveness and does not need to be forced. We return to lightheartedness with Prelude and Fugue No. The touch must be light, otherwise your right arm will seize up before the end of the Prelude!

    The left hand can make it dance. Bach ends with a flourish and two dramatic rests requiring an appropriate gesture.

    The Fugue is in French Overture style, necessitating some double-dotting holding notes for longer than their notated value. Halfway through, Bach begins to use only the opening, swirling part of the subject, tossing it around from voice to voice. The joyful, ceremonial chords at the end are more effective if an extra octave is added to the bass line.

    The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893

    The whole character of Prelude No. They give the pulse and set things going, ready for the right hand to enter with its broken chords. In these, it is necessary to find the notes that move rather than the ones that remain stable and bring out their line.

    The left hand becomes increasingly melodic, the right hand breaks loose in a series of descending diminished-seventh chords, and the Prelude ends defiantly.

    Bach : The Well Tempered Clavier Book 1 - Nos

    After this, the Fugue can seem a little sober, but its singing style gives us some tender moments. The most substantial Prelude in Book I is No. It is in three parts: a preamble which improvises around a pattern of semiquavers, a chorale-like fugato introducing a subject that rises in fourths, and a double fugue combining these two musical ideas.

    This is one of the most difficult Preludes for fingering and clarity of texture. After such a serious-minded Prelude, Bach surprises us with a wonderfully witty three-voice Fugue.

    The chromaticisms we find in the descent into C minor bars15—17 , are echoed, teasingly, in the last bar. Then, without warning, we are immediately in another world, and in the key of E-flat minor. A feeling of solitude permeates Prelude No. It is an impassioned aria of great eloquence. The simple beauty of the Fugue subject comes to us from far away, without breaking the mood set by the Prelude.

    One by one the three voices enter, without giving us any definite countersubject. In fact, Bach becomes rather obsessed with the subject, giving it several different treatments. In bar 24 we have another, but with the middle voice in a slightly augmented form using a dotted rhythm.

    The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893

    Six bars later, after yet another stretto , we hear the subject turned upside down for the first time. This passage culminates in the strong bass entry in bar The overlapping continues unabated, and brings us to a halfclose in bar Then we have the first fully augmented entry of the subject, given to the bass.

    Before it is finished, we will hear the original form in the middle voice, and the inverted one in the treble. The augmented version is then sung by each voice in turn, finishing with the treble bar This is a wonderful moment where, for me, time seems suspended.

    We think Bach is going to finish with a descent to the final chord, but instead he surprises us and rises to the major key. I feel it is his way of expressing hope in the Eternal, rather than despair. This Fugue is notated in D-sharp minor the enharmonic key of E-flat minor , probably because it was originally written in D minor before its inclusion in The Well- Tempered Clavier.

    Some editions print it, however, in E-flat minor. The important thing is to make this piece expressive, and not have it sound like a study in fugal construction. This latter work Bach played altogether three times through for him with his unmatchable art, and my father counted these among his happiest hours, when Bach, under the pretext of not feeling in the mood to teach, sat himself at one of his fine instruments and thus turned these hours into minutes.

    I am always amazed, nevertheless, at how Bach has the knack of changing mood so rapidly, yet so effectively. This is the case with Prelude and Fugue No. The grace, charm, and good nature of the Prelude completely dispel the melancholy of the previous work. It is a pastorale , and was once attached to the sixth French Suite in E Major it is found in a copy of the Suite made by the above-mentioned Gerber.

    The Fugue makes me think of three village gossips chattering away at once. Right up to the end they are each trying to get a word in with Bach using just the opening two notes of the subject by that point! The key of E minor brings us some arresting music.

    There was no haunting melody. By adding these things, Bach turns it into an orchestral piece — one can imagine an oboe solo, accompanied by strings and continuo. For a pianist, the challenge is to make it sound Baroque, and not like Chopin.

    There is much humor in his brilliance. Prelude and Fugue No. It is so similar to the Prelude and has the same difficulty made slightly easier: playing long trills evenly in one hand while the other is simultaneously dealing with a lot of semiquavers. It is probably the easiest of the Fugues in Book I — though none is easy. Here the Prelude is an allemande without the characteristic upbeat in which the note values are precisely indicated to obtain a perfect legato and a rich contrapuntal texture.

    It is expressive but flowing, and has the processional character of that dance. The Fugue subject has strength, dignity, and solemnity. Its combination of chromaticisms and expressive intervals give it great intensity.

    It is written in quadruplecounterpoint subject with three countersubjects , and at times is very difficult for the player to untangle.

    Since there have been many other proposals and many performances of the work in different and unequal tunings, some derived from historical sources, some by modern authors. Whatever their provenances, these schemes all promote the existence of subtly different musical characters in different keys, due to the sizes of their intervals. However, they disagree as to which key receives which character: Herbert Anton Kellner argued from the mids until his death that esoteric considerations such as the pattern of Bach's signet ring , numerology , and more could be used to determine the correct temperament.

    His result is somewhat similar to Werckmeister's most familiar "correct" temperament.

    It is especially effective as a moderate solution to play 17th-century music, shying away from tonalities that have more than two flats. John Barnes analyzed the Well-Tempered Clavier 's major-key preludes statistically, observing that some major thirds are used more often than others. His results were broadly in agreement with Kellner's and Werckmeister's patterns. Mark Lindley , a researcher of historical temperaments, has written several surveys of temperament styles in the German Baroque tradition.

    In his publications he has recommended and devised many patterns close to those of Neidhardt, with subtler gradations of interval size.

    Since a article in which he addressed some issues in the Well-Tempered Clavier, Lindley's theories have focused more on Bach's organ music than the harpsichord or clavichord works. Title page tuning interpretations[ edit ] Top of Bach's title page for the 1st book of 'The Well-Tempered Clavier', , showing handwritten loops which some have interpreted as tuning instructions.

    More recently there has been a series of proposals of temperaments derived from the handwritten pattern of loops on Bach's title page. These loops though truncated by a later clipping of the page can be seen at the top of the title page image at the beginning of the article. Andreas Sparschuh, in the course of studying German Baroque organ tunings, assigned mathematical and acoustic meaning to the loops.

    Each loop, he argued, represents a fifth in the sequence for tuning the keyboard, starting from A. From this Sparschuh devised a recursive tuning algorithm resembling the Collatz conjecture in mathematics, subtracting one beat per second each time Bach's diagram has a non-empty loop.

    Michael Zapf in reinterpreted the loops as indicating the rate of beating of different fifths in a given range of the keyboard in terms of seconds-per-beat, with the tuning now starting on C. John Charles Francis in performed a mathematical analysis of the loops using Mathematica under the assumption of beats per second. In , he also distributed several temperaments derived from BWV

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