PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have . Chapter 8: Babies Learn Best — The Effortless English™ Engine. Chapter 9: The First. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for for the Spoken English Learned Quickly course may LESSON X. The English portion of this Student Workbook for the Spoken English Learned .. good okay (OK) good afternoon repeat (to repeat) good evening sentence.
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To improve English speaking, the best thing to do is to talk with a native speaker. Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that. topics related to English speaking success and teaching mastery. I created the In creating Effortless English, I have assembled the very best English teaching. PDF | Spoken English is a book designed for second language learners who wish to improve their conversational English. In addition to.
Some new sounds will be relatively simple for you to make. Others will be more difficult. A stop is a break caused by momentarily restricting the air flow with the tongue or throat.
For example, the simple English sentence, "Why didn't that work? But it may give you difficulty for another reason as well. There are actually two stops in the sentence. When properly pronounced, there is a stop between the "n" and "t" in "didn't" and another stop between the final "t" in "didn't" and the first "t" in "that.
Your goal is not even to be able to say it just well enough so that someone could figure out what you meant. Your objective is to be able to say, "Why didn't that work? That degree of perfection will require thousands—if not tens of thousands—of repetitions. Therefore—to be somewhat facetious—the more quickly you correctly repeat a particularly difficult phoneme ten thousand times, the more quickly you will be able to use it fluently.
That is what I mean when I say, "The more you speak English aloud, the more quickly you will learn to speak fluently. You must never make a mistake when you are practicing spoken English. However, when you construct a sentence incorrectly, you have not only wasted the learning time used to construct that sentence, but you must now invest even more time in order to retrain your mind, mouth, and hearing in order to construct the sentence correctly. The more you use a sentence structure incorrectly, the longer it will take for your mind, mouth, and hearing to identify the correct syntax.
Ideally, if you used only correct syntax and pronunciation, you could retrain your speech in considerably less time. Consequently, you would learn to speak fluent English more quickly. Well, it can almost be done! Though the goal is commendable, in practice it has a serious drawback. A beginning student does not have enough language background to be able to construct sentences properly.
Consequently, beginning students regularly use incomplete sentences having incorrect syntax and verb construction. The instructor often praises them for their valiant effort, in spite of the reality that they are learning to use English incorrectly.
The student will now need to spend even more time relearning the correct syntax. You would repeat the recorded lesson material which was accurate in every detail. For the entire instruction period, you would work by yourself while repeating the exercise sentences hundreds of times. Needless to say, in two weeks' time, you would have spoken English correctly far more than had you been passively sitting in a traditional English class. But more to the point, everything you would have learned would have been correct.
Your syntax would have been correct. Your use of the English verb would have been correct. And, as much as possible, your pronunciation would have been correct. To continue the example, say that it was now time for you to begin trying free speech.
Yet, we still would not want you to make mistakes. Consequently, all free speaking would be taken directly from the many sentences you would have already learned. Subsequently, you would be given questions to answer which would use the same structure as the sentences you already knew, but now you would substitute other vocabulary words which would be in the same lessons. You will do much better if you seek ways in which you can speak English correctly from the very beginning.
Strike a careful balance between free speech and forcing yourself to follow a pattern of correct English use. Do everything in your power to use English correctly. Later, however, you will need to spend a great deal of time talking with others. Nonetheless, every time you encounter new syntax in English, use controlled language drills long enough so that your mind becomes thoroughly familiar with correct sentence structure and pronunciation.
As you progress in your English study, begin reading English newspaper articles aloud. Look for examples of new vocabulary and sentence format. Mark the sentences, verify the vocabulary, and then read—and repeat from recall memory—the sentences aloud until they become a part of your speech. The issue is not whether or not you need to know English grammar.
The question is, "How do you learn English grammar best? As I progressed through primary school and on into secondary school, my language ability matured as a result of my home and school environments. In retrospect, I believe this is what happened: for the most part, I used proper sentence structure and pronunciation because that is what I heard in my home.
However, when I went to school, I needed to learn grammar. I—like probably most of my classmates—did not learn to speak because I studied grammar.
Rather, I was able to learn how to do grammar exercises because I already knew how to speak. Certainly, I learned many important things about English through grammar study. But it was of importance to me only because I had already achieved basic English fluency. I did not learn to speak English as a result of English grammar lessons.
I also took two years of Spanish in secondary school. We started with basic grammar. We wrote exercises every day. But we almost never heard spoken Spanish, much less spoke it ourselves.
Within 10 years of my secondary school graduation, I spent a year in Paris studying French. I had the great fortune of enrolling in a French language school that emphasized spoken French to the complete exclusion of written exercises.
Not only did I learn French grammar—meaning that I learned to use sentences that communicated what I intended to say to a French listener—but because French and Spanish verb construction is similar, I also began to understand the Spanish grammar which made no sense to me in secondary school.
Because I could read and write in English, I had no difficulty reading French. It was a simple transfer of knowledge from reading in English to reading in French. Later, I studied an African language. Because school-based language courses were almost non- existent in that country, all of my language training was done by way of recorded language drills that I adapted from local radio broadcasts. I also had a university student as my language helper.
Yet, I learned how to structure a sentence which is applied grammar and write in that language much more quickly than had I been studying grammar and writing independently of the spoken language.
Traditional English instruction for non-English-speaking students has reversed the process with poor results. Most English classes teach grammar as a foundation for spoken English. The quickest way to teach students to read English is to teach them to speak it first. The fastest way to teach them sufficient grammar to pass college entrance exams is to build a foundation by teaching them to speak English fluently.
Whenever the process is reversed, it takes a needlessly long time to succeed in teaching grammar and writing skills, much less fluent spoken English. The fastest way for you to learn excellent English grammar is to learn it while speaking. When you have repeated the sentences enough times so that they sound correct to you, you will have learned English grammar. But the grammar is learned by speaking, not by writing.
Do not misunderstand what I am saying. You cannot speak any language well without knowing its grammar because grammar consists of the rules used to put words together into meaningful sentences. In English, we can use a given number of words to make a statement or ask a question by the way in which we order the words and use inflection.
Simply stated, placing the words in the correct order is applied grammar. English is unintelligible without it. The question is, "How will you learn English grammar best? When is the best time to learn that the sentence, "That is a book," is an English statement, and the sentence, "Is that a book? The best time is when you simultaneously learn to speak these two sentences. That would take place while you are learning many other similar sentences so that you will develop a cognitive sense reinforced by motor skill and auditory feedback.
You will learn that the order and inflection of the one sentence is a question, while the other is a statement. The sound of the sentence is as much an indicator of its meaning as its written form. There is also a relationship between good pronunciation and good spelling. I am a poor speller.
I understand that I misspell many words because I probably mispronounce them. At some point, everyone who expects to write English well must learn to spell. Yet, it will probably be faster for you to learn good spelling after learning good pronunciation than it will be for you to learn good spelling without being able to speak. In practice, you will learn the spelling of new English words as they are added to the vocabulary of each new lesson. I am not saying that grammar or spelling are unnecessary.
Rather, I am saying that grammar can be taught more effectively—and in less time—by using audio language drills.
Teaching grammar by means of spoken language has the great advantage of reinforcing the cognitive learning of grammar while using two additional functions found in normal speech—motor skill feedback and auditory feedback.
Teaching grammar as a written exercise does develop cognitive learning, but it reinforces it with visual feedback. Though visual feedback has some merit, it is outside the context of spoken English. The single reinforcement of visual feedback outside of the spoken English context is far less effective than motor skill feedback and auditory feedback which are both inside the spoken language context.
The trade-off is costly and retards progress.
Far more is gained when you learn to identify correct grammar by the way a sentence sounds, rather than by the way it looks. Though it would not typically be explained this way, it is also important on a subconscious level that you learn how correct grammar feels. As a function of the proprioceptive sense, a statement produces a certain sequence of sensory feedback from the mouth, tongue, and air passages that feels different than a question.
It would take considerably longer to teach a language student how to write English grammar exercises, and then speak English correctly, than it would to teach the same student to first speak English correctly, and then introduce rules of grammar. If you study spoken English for a year, you will gain a great deal of fluency.
With that spoken English fluency, you will have a good understanding of English grammar.
If you spend the same amount of time in English grammar study, you will have limited English fluency and will have little practical understanding of English grammar.
That is probably why you are reading this book. You have undoubtedly studied written English for a long time, but you still can't speak English very well.
The kind of sentences which you use as a beginning student are the same kind of sentences which you must master as an advanced student in order to gain English fluency. As a beginning English student, you must learn English in the context of full sentences.
As an advanced student, you must use the same sentences to perfect syntax and intonation. Your perceived needs as you begin studying English will significantly influence how you answer this chapter's title question. If you decide that you need beginning English when you start your study, you will spend much time looking for lessons with beginning sentences because English does not speak a beginning language.
On the other hand, if you decide that the English used in the daily newspaper is what you want to learn, you can easily find that kind of English language.
I am really asking if beginning and advanced students can use the same level of lessons to learn spoken English. Before you give an intuitive answer, I need to ask the question properly. The question is, "Does English have multiple, specialized language divisions? Modern English does not even have a specialized construction for folklore.
Many languages in which oral tradition has been preserved have a storytelling form of the language which is distinct from the language used in everyday conversation. In these languages, there are often specialists who recount folktales in public gatherings.
Common English has none of that. In fact, English is so simple in this regard that we do not even have two forms of address for people of differing social standing. French, for instance, has strict conventions regarding the use of "tu" or "vous" when addressing someone.
Any student who has taken courses in anatomy, law, physics, automotive technology, psychology, engineering, geology, or anthropology has spent a great deal of time learning specialized terminology. But the essential English syntax which holds these words together in a sentence is still the language of the street—or the language of the daily newspaper. So, aside from specialized vocabularies, English has no divisions representing varying levels of language complexity.
Almost any individual with at least a secondary school education would make essentially the same evaluation of another speaker's ability to use good or bad English. The exception to the above paragraph would be found in technical documents such as legal briefs and the like.
However, this style of English is far from the language used in normal conversation. There is only one kind of English which you need to learn. You do not need two or more different course levels. This is not to say that English is a simple language to learn. Far from it. However, the same complexity is in all spoken English, not merely in some higher level. Why have traditional language programs insisted that there must be beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels of English study?
It is not because there are beginning and advanced levels of spoken English. It is because there are beginning, intermediate, and advanced explanations for English grammar.
This means that some rules of English grammar are easy to explain. Some rules of grammar are more difficult to explain. And some are complex enough to require a highly technical explanation. But spoken English is one subject of study, whereas the formal rules of English grammar are quite another. Now I can answer the question, "Do you need beginning and advanced English lessons to learn the language? There is only one level of spoken English. If you are a beginning student, you must start by speaking normal English sentences.
If you have studied English for several years and consider yourself an advanced student, you must continue until you are able to fluently pronounce the words in those same normal English sentences.
There will be a great difference in the fluency between beginning and advanced students. But there is no difference in the level of English sentences they must study. An example of a compound-complex sentence would be, "The Saturday afternoon program was like a two-ring circus; while one part of the TV screen carried the professional football game, the other part showed scores from collegiate games.
But the complexity of the sentence is not in the language level of the sentence. Its so-called complexity is only in the punctuation of the sentence which makes it a complex sentence by grammatical definition. With very little change, the sentence could become three simple sentences: "The Saturday afternoon program was like a two-ring circus. One part of the TV screen showed the professional football game. The other part of the TV screen showed scores from collegiate games.
Thus, when I say that there is no difference in the level of English sentences a beginning and advanced student must study, I am not talking about a grammatical definition.
I am saying that there is not one language that would be used by commoners and another that would be used by the gentry. Even though the example sentence about the TV's split screen is not a sentence we would want to include in the first lesson, it does not represent multiple, specialized language divisions. It will be a challenge at first but a lot more interesting once you can do it.
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