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Although originally written for first-year university students learning composition, Writing Matters has also been invaluable to ESL students and those in high school preparing for the SATs. He has published widely and has won many teaching awards. Coming Soon. You May Like. You May Also Like.
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Beidler's Invaluable Guide to Writing Essays. June 15th, Tags: Educational Resources. Facebook Twitter. Recent Posts. Beidler offers solid advice that includes, in part: How to find a topic What constitutes a bold thesis How to select and organize evidence What to include in an introduction How to develop a voice How to doctor a sickly paragraph Although originally written for first-year university students learning composition, Writing Matters has also been invaluable to ESL students and those in high school preparing for the SATs.
Huntington also believes that some of the factors contributing to this conflict are that both Christianity upon which Western civilization is based and Islam are: Missionary religions, seeking conversion of others Universal, "all-or-nothing" religions, in the sense that it is believed by both sides that only their faith is the correct one Teleological religions, that is, that their values and beliefs represent the goals of existence and purpose in human existence.
More recent factors contributing to a Western—Islamic clash, Huntington wrote, are the Islamic Resurgence and demographic explosion in Islam, coupled with the values of Western universalism—that is, the view that all civilizations should adopt Western values—that infuriate Islamic fundamentalists.
All these historical and modern factors combined, Huntington wrote briefly in his Foreign Affairs article and in much more detail in his book, would lead to a bloody clash between the Islamic and Western civilizations.
Why civilizations will clash[ edit ] Huntington offers six explanations for why civilizations will clash: Differences among civilizations are too basic in that civilizations are differentiated from each other by history, language, culture, tradition, and, most importantly, religion. These fundamental differences are the product of centuries and the foundations of different civilizations, meaning they will not be gone soon. The world is becoming a smaller place. As a result, interactions across the world are increasing, which intensify "civilization consciousness" and the awareness of differences between civilizations and commonalities within civilizations.
Due to economic modernization and social change, people are separated from longstanding local identities. Instead, religion has replaced this gap, which provides a basis for identity and commitment that transcends national boundaries and unites civilizations.
The growth of civilization-consciousness is enhanced by the dual role of the West. On the one hand, the West is at a peak of power. At the same time, a return-to-the-roots phenomenon is occurring among non-Western civilizations. A West at the peak of its power confronts non-Western countries that increasingly have the desire, the will and the resources to shape the world in non-Western ways.
Cultural characteristics and differences are less mutable and hence less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones. Economic regionalism is increasing.
Successful economic regionalism will reinforce civilization-consciousness. Economic regionalism may succeed only when it is rooted in a common civilization. The West versus the Rest[ edit ] Huntington suggests that in the future the central axis of world politics tends to be the conflict between Western and non-Western civilizations, in [Stuart Hall]'s phrase, the conflict between "the West and the Rest".
He offers three forms of general actions that non-Western civilization can take in response to Western countries. However, Huntington argues that the costs of this action are high and only a few states can pursue it. According to the theory of " band-wagoning " non-Western countries can join and accept Western values.
Non-Western countries can make an effort to balance Western power through modernization. They can develop economic, military power and cooperate with other non-Western countries against the West while still preserving their own values and institutions. Huntington believes that the increasing power of non-Western civilizations in international society will make the West begin to develop a better understanding of the cultural fundamentals underlying other civilizations.
Therefore, Western civilization will cease to be regarded as "universal" but different civilizations will learn to coexist and join to shape the future world. Core state and fault line conflicts[ edit ] In Huntington's view, intercivilizational conflict manifests itself in two forms: fault line conflicts and core state conflicts. Fault line conflicts are on a local level and occur between adjacent states belonging to different civilizations or within states that are home to populations from different civilizations.
Core state conflicts are on a global level between the major states of different civilizations. Core state conflicts can arise out of fault line conflicts when core states become involved. Some of these countries have clashed with the West and some have not. Perhaps the ultimate example of non-Western modernization is Russia, the core state of the Orthodox civilization. Huntington argues that Russia is primarily a non-Western state although he seems to agree that it shares a considerable amount of cultural ancestry with the modern West.
According to Huntington, the West is distinguished from Orthodox Christian countries by its experience of the Renaissance , Reformation , the Enlightenment ; by overseas colonialism rather than contiguous expansion and colonialism; and by the infusion of Classical culture through ancient Greece rather than through the continuous trajectory of the Byzantine Empire. Huntington refers to countries that are seeking to affiliate with another civilization as "torn countries".
Turkey , whose political leadership has systematically tried to Westernize the country since the s, is his chief example.
Mexico and Russia are also considered to be torn by Huntington. He also gives the example of Australia as a country torn between its Western civilizational heritage and its growing economic engagement with Asia.
According to Huntington, a torn country must meet three requirements to redefine its civilizational identity. Its political and economic elite must support the move. Second, the public must be willing to accept the redefinition. Third, the elites of the civilization that the torn country is trying to join must accept the country. Then, we will regain the Turkish public opinion support in one day. Western civilization is no exception.
The practice of democracy that has won out in the modern West is largely a result of a consensus that has emerged since the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution , and particularly in the last century or so. To read in this a historical commitment of the West—over the millennia—to democracy, and then to contrast it with non-Western traditions treating each as monolithic would be a great mistake.
He argues there is no "Islamic civilization" nor a "Western civilization", and that the evidence for a civilization clash is not convincing, especially when considering relationships such as that between the United States and Saudi Arabia.